Sunday, May 24, 2020
Imperialism and India nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout history, many nations have implemented imperialism to enforce their will over others for money, protection and civilization. India was no exception. Since its discovery, Europeans were trying get a piece of Indias action. In many cases England was the imperial, or mother country. Since India was put under imperialism, a great deal of things changed, some for the good, mostly though for the bad. Between 1640 and 1949, India was ruled by two periods of imperialism, both of which effected India in a very profound and permanent manner. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The first period of European control was between 1740 and 1858. During this period the British East India CompanyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This Revolution brought the rule of the East India Company to an end. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The second period of English imperialism started in August of 1858 when the British monarchy assumed direct control of India from the East India Company. This established a full colonial government, where British officials run the countries affairs, in India. This is known as colonial imperialism. This period was one of major change in Indian life and culture. While the East India Company tried respect local customs and learn local languages, the colonial government quot;tried to impose British culture on India. . . encouraged the Indian people to abandon their traditions and learn to speak, dress and live like Europeans.quot; This came to a head in 1877, when Queen Victoria was recognized as the Empress of India. The colonial government felt it was their duty to civilize the people of India, feeling quot;I am a little bit better than you, therefore my presence is necessary.quot; This all began to end in 1885 with the formation of the Indian National Congress, made up of middle-class Indians who were known as the congress. This congress campaigned for free education for both sexes, more Indian representation in government, and other reforms. But then in the early 1900s, nationalists began to reject British rule and petition for its end in India by boycotting British goods and publishing books which quot;restored peoples prideShow MoreRelatedImperialism in India6601 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesof imperialism are both positive and negative. The positive effects are banning inhumane traditional practices such as sati and the dowry system, promoting widow remarriage and prohibiting child marriage. The negative effects are that Britain caused the traditional industries to crash. Also, poverty increased. British officials were paid out of the India treasury. Imperialism drained Indias wealth. It destroyed India economically and politically. India became dependent due to imperialism. ItRead MoreA Passage to India: Imperialism1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDiscuss ForsterÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Imperialism in the novel a passage to India A passage to India by E.M.Forster is a novel which deals largely with the political, economic and social takeover of India by the British Crown. The novel deals widely with colonialism and more specifically, imperialism. Forster presents the theme in question through the lives and minds of the characters from both the Indians and the English people. There is no subjective undertone to the novel and we see clearly how eachRead MoreImperialism in India and China1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBritish imperialism in China and India brought very different responses, in part because of the nature of imperialism in each place. While both regions were greatly influenced by the British, in India the country was placed under the direct rule of the Queen. In China on the other hand, the spheres of influence were economic, and did not entail direct British rule. During the British imperial age the culture of China continued on much the same as it had before, while in India the British triedRead Mor eImperialism In India Essay1889 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesExamination Section I, Question 1: The imperialism that took place in India between the 1750s and the Second World War is vastly different from the imperialism that took place in Chine during those same time periods. Both events of imperialism greatly changed the formation of these two countries into the countries they are today. Great Britain dominated both India and China throughout the end of the 19th century into the 20th century. The effects of the imperialism on India and China both had positive andRead MoreImperialism and India Essay1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesor regionÃ¢â¬â¢s political, cultural, or economic life by one country is called imperialism. (Esler, page. 632) European imperialism began in the 1800s. Ã¢â¬Å"European nations won empires in the Americas after1492, established colonies in India and Southeast Asia, and gained toeholds on the coast of Africa and China. Despite these gains, between 1500 and 1800, Europe had little influence on the lives of the peoples of China, India or Africa.Ã¢â¬ (Esler, page.632) Then the Europeans industrialized and believeRead MoreImperialism of India by Britain Essay571 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesImperialism is the domination of one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country. Imperialism is more often than not fueled by two major schools of thought known as nationalism and Social Darwinism. Nationalism is a feeling of pride and devotion to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. This can drive a person to think that their country is the most powerful, and in essence drives that person mad with power and a hunger to conquer, which not ironically is exactly what many countries did. SocialRead MoreBritish Imperialism in India Essay706 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesgiven the people of India the greatest human blessing - peace.Ã¢â¬ (Dutt). Merely coming to India in the 1600s to trade, the British East India Company established trading outposts. After ridding of French influence in India during the Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War and having Indian s mutiny against British rule, Britain gained full control of India. India has been under the imperialist control of the British until their independence in 1947. British imperialism caused some negative effects on India through poverty andRead MoreBritish Imperialism In India1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBritish controlled parts of India first through company rule 1757-1858 and later through the British raj from 1858-1947. The British did not enter India as colonisers but as traders. They had a legal trading charter from the British crown and they also had permission to trade in Bengal from the Mughal king Jahangir. They continued to be a trading company for many years but after the death of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb in 1701 they gradually started to take control. The East India Company started to controlRead MoreThe Imperialism Of India By George Marshall1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKai Middlebrook Mrs.McKnight World Literature: Per. 5 11 October 2015 British Imperialism in India Ã¢â¬Å"After three shots, the elephant still does not die. Orwell fires his two remaining shots into the elephantÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. He sends someone to get his small rifle, then pours Ã¢â¬Ëshot after shot into his heart and down his throat.Ã¢â¬â¢ Still, the elephant does not die. Orwell, unable to stand the elephantÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering and unable to watch and listen to it, goes away. The elephant, like the Burmese people, has becomeRead MoreBritish Imperialism in India Essay1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAli, a leader of the Indian National Congress. br(Masani, quoted in Wood, 32, 1989) br brThere is no doubt that British imperialism had a large impact on India. India, having previously been an group of independent and semi-independent princedoms and territories, underwent great change under British administration. Originally intended to consolidate their hold on India by establishing a population that spoke the same language as their rulers, the British decision in the 1830s to educat e Indians
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Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Many economic and political factors lie behind the cause of the American Civil War. Among such causes, the issue of slavery is raised repeatedly. Many men and women sacrificed all that they had in opposition to the evils of slavery. Through these hardships comes the inspiration for such an epic of American literature as Uncle Toms Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Her novel, a stirring indictment of slavery, truly captures the scathing realities of life in the south for a black slave. As well, the true story of Harriet Tubman, outlined in a stunning biography by Sarah Bradford Ãâ" Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People Ãâ" is a story of an individuals battle against the atrocities placed upon them by the issues surrounding slavery. BothÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The life of Harriet Tubman is a true story, offering a piece of inspiration to all of humanity. Rising above the confinements of her southern home on a cotton plantation, Harriet flees to unknown territories in the ho pes of preserving her human dignity. This in itself is an extremely intrepid challenge. Tubman, however, continually returns to the south (a total of nineteen times), bringing back to Canada approximately 300 slaves. Once she was free, she did not have to return. The fact remains, however, she could not bear the thought of others living in such conditions. As a result, Tubman exceeds all boundaries of courage, becoming a role model to the southern black community and a hero to the abolitionist movement. Uncle Toms Cabin is a remarkable tale of how one individual overcame the many stereotypes that black slaves are faced with, becoming a role model to all those around him. Uncle Tom is a placid, docile man, who although has limited opportunity, strives to gain knowledge and intelligence. He wants it to be clear to everyone that he is not a dirty slave. Many would continue to see him as merely a slave, not allowing him to have any equal opportunities in which he deserves. Despite this, Uncle Tome proves that he too can be dignified and respected. In doing so Uncle Tom becomes the ideal of a brave man to anyShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The American Civil War760 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Civil War was one of the most momentous and pivotal periods in U.S history. After decades of tension between the North and South over matters involving expansion, slavery, and the states rights these caused the beginning of a horrific devastating time known as the American Civil War, that lasted between 1861-1865. Within these 4 long barbaric and destructive years, it led to an innumerous amount of political, social, and economical changes for the U.S. Leaving 2.4 million dead and millionsRead MoreCause Of The American Civil War1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdebates on the causes of the American Civil War. Many have stated that slavery was the primary cause for the Civil War. Some historians have argued that there were other causes of the Civil War. The one thing that all historia ns agreed upon was the division between the North (known as the Union) and the South (known as the Confederacy) that escalated on the soil of the United States of America (In Stampp, 1965). The battle between the two states is what created the Ã¢â¬Å"American Civil War.Ã¢â¬ The AmericanRead MoreCauses of the American Civil War2672 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ The American Civil War: Causes, Victor, and Validity Keagan Koerber History 205 Professor Childress December 9, 2014 The slightest mention of the American Civil War is enough to bring graphic and often horrifying images into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s head: mountains of dead soldiers, amputations without anesthesia, and diseases running rampant. The Civil War was a war that no one wished for, it resulted in the deaths of several hundred thousand American lives, but it is often justified by itsRead MoreCauses Of The American Civil War1769 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe American Civil War was one of the most tragic events in American history. The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861 and ended on May 9, 1865. It was a bloody war between states. Hundreds of thousands of men died in the American Civil war. The war was fought between brothers and friends on each side. The issue of slavery was dividing the nation apart and it was a fight to death. The Confederate States of America seceded because they wanted slavery to continue and believed that they did notRead MoreThe Causes Of The American Civil War Essay2218 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDay One: Grades: Elementary grade level 5th-6th Goal: Students will be able to identify the causes of the American Civil War. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to compare the cultures and economies of the Northern and Southern states. 2. Students will be able to summarize the main points of the Missouri Compromise, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Declaration of Causes of the Seceding States. 3. Students will be able to discuss the actions of John Brown at Harpers Ferry and the reaction ofRead MoreThe Main Cause Of The American Civil War1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesone main cause of the American Civil war must be resolved, and while there are many ideas, history reveals that there was only one. There are many arguable motives to the start of the Civil War, but there are four main concepts. These four concepts were slavery, taxation, the election of Abraham Lincoln and lastly, struggling with power between the Northern and Southern states. To start with, the end of slavery is undoubtedly one of the most popular arguments to the creation of the Civil War. WhileRead MoreThe Ultimate Causes Of The American Civil War941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe American Civil War was a war fought within the United States of America between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy) The war was one of the most critical events in American history. Ã¢â¬Å"It is estimated that 623,000 soldiers died during the Civil WarÃ¢â¬ (Garrison) starting from 1861 and ending in 1865. While many still debate the ultimate causes of the Civil War, author James McPherson writes that, The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave statesRead MoreCauses of the American Civil War Essay1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Civil War was caused by a myriad of conflicting pressures, principles, and prejudices, fueled by sectional differences and pride, and set into motion by a most unlikely set of political events. From the co lonial period in America where the institution of slavery began, through the period of the revolution whereby blood was shed to validate the notion that all men were created equal (yet slavery existed in all thirteen colonies), to the era of the Civil War itself, it is undoubtedly clear thatRead MoreCauses of the American Civil War Essay1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesversion of the civil war and even now I am just coming to a full understanding of the truth. The civil war was a terrible rift in our nation, fought between the northern states (known as the union) and the southern states (the Confederate States of America). The peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions were so divided over the issues of the civil war that, in some families, brother was pit against brother. Eventually, the south succumbed to the north and surrendered on April 9th, 1865 but not before the war had caused 618Read MoreEssay on Cause of the American Civil War1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The cause of the American Civil War has b een a politicized subject for the past 152 years. There are many different theories for what the main cause is, however the best answer is an all of the above approach. The cause of the war that divided the nation cannot be narrowly defined into a single issue but each cause is affected and tied together. The main causes that resulted in the Civil War were the issue of nullification, tariffs, but most importantly just an overall difference in their ways
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Asset Transformation Purchase primary securities by selling financial claims (secondary securities) to households Secondary securities are more marketable BECAUSE Less information asymmetry Less monitoring costs More liquid Less risky Without financial intermediaries, households will find direct investments in corporate securities unattractive due to information/monitoring costs, liquidity cost and price risk. Thus flow was funds are less, little monitoring and risk of investments would increase. Specializes of financial institutions General areas (LIP TM) Liquidity services Information services Price- risk reduction services Transaction cost services Maturity intermediation services Institution- specific (McCall) Money supply transmission Credit allocation Denomination intermediation Intergenerational transfers Payment services Information costs Agency costs 0 costs relating to the risk that firm owners and managers use saversÃ¢â¬â¢ ends not in the best interest of the savers Financial institutions collect funds from households in order to avoid free- rider problem (incentive for information collection and monitoring), reduce costs of information collection and monitoring and to develop new secondary securities to more effectively monitor borrows. We will write a custom essay sample on Financial Service and Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now Liquidity and price risk Financial intermediaries provide secondary claims to household savers Ã¢â¬â high liquidity and low price risk and invest in these illiquid and risky sectors Advantage of financial institutions managing liquidity and price risk Diversification (due to size of funds) Development of better risk management techniques Disadvantage of delegated institutions Intermediary services are not free Agency issues Risk management Monitoring financial institutions Other special services Reduced Transaction Cost, I. E. Economies of scale Maturity Intermediation 0 Ability to bear the risk of mismatched maturities of assets and liabilities. Credit Allocation (Depository Flu) Ã¢â¬â Financial intermediaries are the major source of finance in particular sectors of an economy: residential real estate (US and UK), farming (Australia) . Intergenerational Wealth Transfer or Time Intermediation (life insurance, superannuation and pension funds) Payment Services Ã¢â¬â IFS provide efficient payment services to the society. Denomination Intermediation Ã¢â¬â Give individuals indirect access to large denomination markets (Money market managed funds, Debt-equity managed funds, Unit trusts) The Transmission of Monetary Policy (Banks) Financial intermediaries are widely used medium of exchange in the economy. IntermediariesÃ¢â¬â¢ liabilities play significant role in the transmission of monetary policy Money supply in Australia (DonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to know these term 0) MI : currency + bank rent deposits by private non-bank sector MM: currency + all bank deposits by private non-bank sector Broad money: MM + net borrowing of Non-bank IFS from private sector Specializes and Regulation Financial institutions receive special regulatory attention Negative externalities caused by IFS is costly to households and firms using financial services Special services provided by IFS Institution- specific functions Example: money supply transmission, credit allocations, payment services Australian Regulation System The traditional industry- based regulation entailed separate regulators for individual industry sectors Ã¢â¬â banking, insurance and security firms. Asses 0 AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s current financial regulatory framework originated from Ã¢â¬ËFinancial System Enquiry (Wallis Committee), Australia switched from industry-based regulation to function- based regulation. This introduced 3 regulatory agencies, each in charge of specific functional responsibilities. This reform was necessary as the distinction between the activities of different types of financial institutions was becoming more vague and also because of the overlap in regulation and grey areas. Reserve Bank of Australia (ARAB) 0 Responsible for the development and implementation of monetary policy and for overall financial system stability Australian Prudential Regulation Commission (PARA) 0 Responsible for the prudential regulation and supervision of the financial services industry Regulation of deposit- taking institutions Life and general insurance Superannuation Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIA) 0 Responsible for market integrity, consumer protection across the financial system and ensures equal and fair access to financial services. Protects against abuses (example: insider trading), lack of disclosure, malfeasance, breach of fiduciary responsibility. Major types of regulation(Scale) Safety and soundness regulation Consumer protection regulation Credit allocation regulation Investor protection regulation Monetary policy regulation Entry and chartering regulation 1. Risk reduction Encouragement for intermediaries to diversify assets Disclosure of large credit exposure 2. Minimum capital requirements 3. Safety valve Central banksÃ¢â¬â¢ open market operations to provide exchange settlement fund 4. Monitoring and surveillance The ARAB directly controls outside money and the bulk of the money supply is inside money (deposits). Regulators commonly impose a minimum level of cash reserves to be held against deposits. Cash reserves add to intermediariesÃ¢â¬â¢ net regulatory burden. There is no explicit liquidly requirement in Australia but FluÃ¢â¬â¢ liquidity management policy need to be approved by PARA. Supports lending to socially important sector Example: USÃ¢â¬â¢ Qualified Thrift Lender test (QUIT) set a minimum amount of loans made to residential mortgages to quality as Thrift Entry Regulation Regulations define scope of permitted activities under a given charter Increasing/ Decreasing entry barriers affect profitability of existing competitors. High direct/ indirect entry costs result in larger profits for existing companies Future of Regulation Implications of SGF questioned Ã¢â¬â more regulations or more efficient regulations The major provisions include expanding and centralizing powers for Federal agencies, more restrictions and disclosures about risk taking activities by financial institutions and enhancing protection of investors and consumers. The changing dynamics of specializes Potential secular trend away from intermediation by investing directly in primary securities Decline in the relative cost of direct securities investment Growing sophistication of investors Falling costs of information acquisition and transaction Credit Risk: Individual Loan Risk Types of loans 1. Commercial and industrial loans Short term (1 year) Ã¢â¬â financing the purchase of real assets, new venture start up costs Syndicated loans 0 financing provided by a group of lenders, usually to finance large commercial and industrial loans Secured/Unsecured loans Fixed/Floating rate Spot loan 0 borrower takes down the entire loan amount immediately Loan commitment 0 can taken down anytime any amount, as long as within a maximum loan amount and a maximum period of time predetermined Commercial paper 0 unsecured short- term debt instrument 2. Real estate loans 3. Individual (consumer) loans 4. Other loans, such as, government loans, farms loans Calculating the gross return on a loan Factors affecting the promise loan return Loan interest rate = Base/Prime lending rate (BRB) + Credit risk premium (m) Direct fees (f), such as loan origination fee Indirect feeds, such as, compensating balance requirement (b), reserve requirement Credit Risk and the Expected Return on a Loan 1 -p = probability of default 0MAYBE there is a negative relationship between k and p, however k and p are not independent. As return (k) increases, the probability (p) that the borrower pays the promised return may decrease. Simply increasing k does not lead to a higher return (r). As a result, IFS usually have to control for credit risk Ã¢â¬â price/promised return and the quantity or credit availability dimensions. Retails Loans Size = Small Higher cost associated with collection of borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal credit information Control credit risk through credit rationing Ã¢â¬â limit the total expo sure/amount loaned Wholesale Loans Different interest rates to compensate for different levels of risks Credit rationing to limit credit exposure Measuring credit risk 1. Qualitative credit risk models Borrower- specific factors Example: reputation, leverage, volatility of earnings, collateral Market- specific factors Example: business cycle, level of interest rate 2. Credit scoring models Calculate a score as a proxy of borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s default probability Sort borrowers into efferent default classes The scoring model should establish factors the help explain default risk and evaluate the relative importance of these factors Major models 1. Linear probability model 1 if default, otherwise Weakness: the estimated default probability Z may lie outside of [0,1] Employing linear probability model is not often used as superior statistical 2. Logic model Overcomes weakness of the linear probability model using a transformation that restricts the probability to the [0,1] interval 3. Linear discriminate models AltarÃ¢â¬â¢s Z score model for manufacturing firms Z 2. 9, highly quality loans, low default risk Z 1. 81, very low quality loans, high default risk 1. 81 2. 99, hybrid Weaknesses Ignore hard-to-quantify factors Variables and weights in a credit scoring model are unlikely to be constant over long periods of time No centralised database on defaulted business loans for proprietary or other reasons - hard to test the validity of any model/develop new models Broad difference between bad and good borrowers 3. Term structure based methods Under market equilibrium, expected return of a risky loan = risk- free rate (after accounting for probability of default (1 -p)) Assuming a zero default recovery rate 0 p(l+k) = 1+1 p: probability of repayment k: return on the corporate debt I: expect return on the risk- free treasury security Example: What is the default probability for a one- year corporate bond? 10% expected return on the risk- free treasury bond k= 15. 8% expected return on the risky corporate debt p = 0. 95 Therefore the probability of default is 0. 05 Realistically, the Fl lender can expect to receive some partial repayment even if the borrower becomes bankrupt. Alton and Ban estimated that when firms defaulted on their bonds in 2002, the investor loses 74. % on average. = recovery rate when default occurs (1 Ã¢â¬â p) y (1 + k) = payoff to Fl when default occur p (1 + k) = payoff when no default Marginal default probability 0 probability that a bond will default in any given year t Conditional on the fact that the default has not occurred earlier = Marginal probability of default in individual periods Example: 2-period bond Default probability in period 1 Marginal default probability in period 2 Cumulative probability of default over 2 periods We can extract from these yield curves the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations of the multi- period default rates for corporate borrowers Example: Yield Yield Year 1 Year 2 T- Bonds Corporate Bonds 15. 8% One year forward rate on risk- free T-bonds One- year forward rate on corporate bonds 0 The expect probability of default in year 2 0 4. Mortality rate models Marginal mortality rate (MR.) Forward- looking 0 extract expected default rates from the current term structure of interest rates Backward looking 0 analyses the historic or past default risk experience, the mortality rates, of bonds and loans of a similar quality Non- default probability in year 1 the probability of the loan surviving in the 2nd year given that default has not occurred during the firs year, I. E. Prop(default in year 2 | survive yearly) Cumulative mortality rate (CM) Cumulative probability of default MR. is based on historic or backward-looking data, and it is highly sensitive to the period over which the Fl calculates the Mars. 5. RAZOR models It is based on market data. ROAR concept Ã¢â¬â balanced expected interest income against expected loan risk Loan approval 0 RAZOR benchmark return on capital, example: return on equity One year net income on a loan 0 (spread + fees) * dollar value of loans outstanding Loan risk 0 duration or loan default rate Method 1: Use Duration to estimate loan risk The percentage change in the market value of an asset such as a loan is related to the duration of the loan and the size of the interest rate shock Capital at risk (Vary approach) 0 the potential loan Los under adverse credit scenarios 0 Increase in risk premium under adverse credit scenarios Example: Suppose we want to evaluate the credit risk off $1 million loan with duration of 2. How to cite Financial Service and Industry, Papers
Posted by Unknown at 1:36 PM
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Income Distribution and Demand Induced Innovations. Answer: Introduction In the financial aspects, demand as well as supply is considered as the most critical elements that impact the cost of an item. These two major concepts demand and supply are measured as the foundation or base of the market economy. Moreover, demand and supply also affect the market harmony in both positive and negative manner. Market harmony is a circumstance where the cost of an item/benefit continues as before. As such, it can be said that, harmony is the cost wherever the sum requested by benefactors would be equivalent to the sum provided by providers. The adjustments in the demand as well as supply of an item will impact the harmony cost and amount of an item. Furthermore, cost is an essential variable that assembles a solid association between these two components of economics: demand and supply. Along with this, this research essay would be useful to portray the central point that affects the demand and supply of an item in the commercial center. Additionally, in perspective of this examination article, Cigarettes is picked as an item to perceive influence of variables on the demand and supply effectually. All in all, this article would be gainful to speak to the connection amongst free market activity successfully. In the area of economics, price of a product or commodity can be considered a major factor that may have an impact on the demand and supply factors of the market economy. Apart from price, there are various variables exist in the economy of a country that influence the demand and supply of an item usually. With regards to this research essay, the most important considerations that would influence the demand as well as supply of chose item Cigarettes are outlined as beneath: Value: Price is a central point that impacts the request and supply of an item in the commercial center. According to the law of interest, the cost affects both request and supply side of the market. For case, if there will be an expansion in the cost of an item then there will be a lessening in the request of the item. In inverse to this, if there will be a decrease in the in the cost of an item then there will be an expansion in the request of the item(Nelson Goel, 2012). Similarly, a drop off in the costs of cigarettes will expand the request and supply of Cigarettes inside the country in a programmed way. Besides, a decrease in the costs of cigarettes will spur to clients to obtain greater quantity of the product. In addition, the diminished costs of Cigarettes will incite providers to supply greater quantity of cigarettes to satisfy the demand of the consumers in a proper manner. The below graph is helpful to show the effect of price on demand and supply of a product: Wage levels of Consumers: Income level is additionally an imperative component that impact the request and supply of an item in the commercial center. For case, an expansion in the salary level/work level builds the request of an item in a nation. It is a direct result of the expanded pay level of individuals makes them proficient so they can purchase an item in the coveted amount. In addition to this, an expansion in the pay level of individuals will expand the request of Cigarettes inside the country. It is outstanding that Cigarettes is a high requested item in the vast majority of the countries and expanded salary level assumes a huge part to satisfy the request of item in a proper way (FOELLMI ZWEIMLLER, 2006). In inverse to this, if there will be a decrease in the wage level of the general population then it will impact the request and supply of Cigarettes in the market. It is a result of all things considered; individuals would not have the capacity to pay cash for Cigarettes and furthermore seek different substitutes of Cigarettes. This factor will deteriorate the supply of Cigarettes in the market. The below graph is helpful to show the impact of income level/wage rate on the demand and supply of a commodity: Substitute Goods' Price: The cost of substitute merchandise or items is likewise a central point that progression the demand as well as supply sides of an item. For case, if the substitute of an item is available at less expensive value then customers will buy the substitute item rather than craved item (Krugman Wells, 2012). It is well-known that e-cigarettes or vapouriser is a noteworthy substitute of Cigarettes in Australia; and expanded costs of Cigarettes will decay the request as well as supply of Cigarettes. It will also improve request and supply of e-cigarettes or vapouriser inside the country in a programmed way. Government Rules Regulations: Government rules as well as regulations are the most important factor that widely influences the demand and supply side of a product. The chosen product Cigarette is injurious for health. The government of the nation makes a lot of policies to restrict cigarette in the marketplace. But, the government of a nation cant fully ban Cigarette in the nation. It is because of these types of products improve the economy of a nation. So, when the government puts ban on cigarettes then it increases the demand of the product immediately. The increased demand of cigarettes directly improves the supply of the product(Bader, Boisclair, Ferrence, 2011). Hence, government rules and regulations is also other major factor that may influence the demand and supply sides of a commodity in the marketplace. The below graph is helpful to show the effects of the government policies on the demand and supply of cigarettes: Inclinations of Consumers: The purchasers' tastes, propensities, traditions, inclinations, needs, goals et cetera are the main considerations that affect the demand as well as supply of an item. Along with this, if shoppers pick e-cigarettes in place of cigarettes then it will impact the request of cigarettes contrarily(Dlabay, Burrow, Kleindl, 2008). As such, one might say that there will be a decrease in the request and supply of cigarettes in the commercial center. Likelihood of Price Changes in Upcoming Years: Future expanded costs of an item likewise impact the request and supply of an item. For case, if there is a likelihood that cigarettes cost will increment later on then the buyers will get colossal amount of cigarettes and this will improve the request and supply of cigarettes at that moment (Faith M.Edwin, 2014). On the other hand, the other certainty is that, the future expanded costs of cigarettes will likewise diminish the demand as well as supply of cigarettes in future day and age. Thus, one might say that, these are the main considerations that affect the demand as well as supply side of an item in the marketplace of a nation. Conclusion On the basis of the above discussion, it can be accepted that, there is a solid association between the free market activities of an item/benefit. Furthermore, it is additionally watched that both supply and request have an impact on each other. Both free market activity variables are interrelated and also rely on upon each other. In addition to this, it is additionally examined that there are a considerable measure of elements, for example, wage level, value, customers' tastes and inclinations, substitute merchandise's costs et cetera that have both positive as well as negative impact on the demand and supply sides of the market. Bibliography Bader, P., Boisclair, D., Ferrence, R. (2011). Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health , 8 (11), 4118-4139. Dlabay, L., Burrow, J. L., Kleindl, B. (2008). Intro Ato Business. USA: Cengage Learning. Faith, D. O., M.Edwin, A. (2014). A Review of The Effect of Pricing Strategies on The Purchase of Consumer Goods. International Journal of Research in Management, Science Technology , 2 (2), 88-102. FOELLMI, R., ZWEIMLLER, J. (2006). Income Distribution and Demand-Induced Innovations. Review of Economic Studies , 73, 941960. Harris, R. L. (2000). Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. UK: Oxford University Press. Krugman, P., Wells, R. (2012). CourseSmart E-Book for Macroeconomics: A PDF-style E-Book. USA: Palgrave Macmillan. Mankiw, N. G. (2008). Principles of Macroeconomics. USA: Cengage Learning. Nelson, P. M., Goel, P. R. (2012). Global Efforts to Combat Smoking: An Economic Evaluation of Smoking Control Policies. USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Posted by Unknown at 10:58 AM
Sunday, March 29, 2020
Frankensteins monster Essay Frankenstein was a novel written by Mary Shelley in 1818. Since then there have been many versions and adaptations in the form of films. One extremely different to the other, they show how the novel can be so widely adapted and modified to the wishes of the director. James Whale directed the first film version of Frankenstein in 1931 then Kenneth Branagh released Mary Shelleys Frankenstein in 1994. Mary Shelley was born in 1771 and had a troubled life from the moment she was born. Her mother Mary Wollstonecraft died giving birth to Shelley. She inherited a tendency to be easily depressed from her mother, so when her stepmother who she despised brought her up she decided to runaway to Europe continually with her stepsister. She met Percy Shelley when she was sixteen (who was already married) and they went away to Geneva (also where the novel was set). They decided to all write ghost stories and Mary produced Frankenstein, the only story from that holiday to be published. Many think that Frankenstein is based around Shelleys life, and her heartache of her mothers death at birth. Throughout the essay I will write about the ways both the monster and Dr. Frankenstein are portrayed by the two different directors and how this creates atmosphere and feelings in the audience. I will also be writing about how background music, Sound effects, and camera angles contribute to the separate films. Then I will go on to look at not only the costumes of the characters but the settings of the both films too. In Whales 1931 black and white version of Frankenstein he characterises Dr. Frankenstein exceedingly well, but not truthfully towards Shelleys novel. We will write a custom essay sample on Frankensteins monster specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Frankensteins monster specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Frankensteins monster specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Firstly he changes his name from Victor (meaning victory) to Henry; this could relate to Whales view that Frankenstein is not victorious in the novel. Frankenstein wears a typical long, white lab coat to suggest clearly to the audience that he is a professional doctor. It could also connote to the audience that he is smart, well brought up, devoted and possibly a perfectionist. This is also shown by the way Frankensteins hair is always perfectly tidy and combed. These are deliberate decisions made by the director, as this is the way he wants Dr. Frankenstein to be portrayed.
Posted by Unknown at 3:52 AM
Saturday, March 7, 2020
The Life and Accomplishments of Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius (r. A.D. 161-180) was a Stoic philosopher and one of the five good Roman emperors (r. A.D. 161-180). He was born on April 26, A.D. 121, according to DIR Marcus Aurelius, or perhaps April 6 or 21. He died on March 17, 180. His Stoic philosophical writings are known as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, which were written in Greek. He was succeeded by his son the infamous Roman emperor Commodus. It was during the reign of Marcus Aurelius that the Marcomannic War broke out at the northern frontier of the empire. It was also the time of the important physician Galen who wrote about a particularly virulent pandemic that was given Marcus Aurelius family name. Quick Facts Name at birth: Marcus Annius VerusName as emperor: Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus AugustusDates: April 26, 121 - March 17, 180Parents: Annius Verus and Domitia Lucilla;Adoptive father: (Emperor) Antoninus PiusWife: Faustina, daughter of Hadrian; 13 children, including Commodus Family History and Background Marcus Aurelius, originally Marcus Annius Verus, was the son of the Spanish Annius Verus, who had received patrician rank from Emperor Vespasian, and Domitia Calvilla or Lucilla. Marcus father died when he was three months old, at which time his grandfather adopted him. Later, Titus Antoninus Pius adopted Marcus Aurelius at the age of 17 or 18 as part of an agreement he had made with Emperor Hadrian promoting Antoninus Pius to the status of heir. Career The Augustan History says that it was when Marcus was adopted as heir that he was first called Aurelius instead of Annius. Antoninus Pius made Marcus consul and caesar in A.D. 139. In 145, Aurelius married his sister by adoption, Faustina, daughter of Pius. After they had a daughter, he was granted tribunician power and imperium outside Rome. When Antoninus Pius died in 161, the Senate awarded the imperial power to Marcus Aurelius; however, Marcus Aurelius gave joint power to his brother (by adoption) and called him Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus. The two co-ruling brothers are referred to as Antonines as in the Antonine plague of 165Ã¢â¬â180. Marcus Aurelius ruled from A.D. 161-180. Imperial Hotspots SyriaArmenia (Marcus Aurelius took the name Armeniacus)Parthia (took the name Parthicus)Chatti (took the name Germanicus by 172 since the name appears in inscriptions then [Cassius Dio])BritonsMarcomanni (when Aurelius defeated them and freed the Pannonian provinces, he and his son Commodus celebrated a triumph) Plague As Marcus Aurelius was preparing for the Marcommanic War (along the Danube, between Germanic tribes and Rome), a plague broke out killing thousands. The Antonini (Marcus Aurelius and his co-emperor/brother-by adoption) helped with burials expenses. Marcus Aurelius also aided the Romans in time of famine and so is thought of as a particularly benevolent rule. Death Marcus Aurelius died in March 180. Before his funeral, he had been declared a god. When his wife, Faustina, had died in 176, Marcus Aurelius asked the Senate to deify her and built her a temple. The gossipy Augustan History says that Faustina had not been a chaste wife and that it was considered a stain on Marcus Aurelius reputation that he promoted her lovers. Marcus Aurelius ashes were put in Hadrians mausoleum. Marcus Aurelius was succeeded by his biological heir, in contradistinction to the previous four good emperors. Marcus Aurelius son was Commodus. The Column of Marcus Aurelius The Column of Marcus Aurelius had a spiral staircase leading to a top from which one could view the Antonine funerary monuments in the Campus Martius. Marcus Aurelius German and Sarmatian campaigns were shown in relief sculptures spiraling up the 100-Roman-foot column. 'The Meditations' Between 170 and 180, Marcus Aurelians wrote 12 books of generally pithy observations from what is considered a Stoic perspective while emperor, in Greek. These are known as his Meditations. Source Ã¢â¬Å"Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica - Bible Encyclopedia.Ã¢â¬ Ã StudyLight.org, www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/bri/m/marcus-aurelius-antoninus.html.
Posted by Unknown at 6:38 AM
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Anycity Ambulance Patient Transfer Service - Essay Example Basically I have tried to incorporate the different interaction styles, so that the user would have a better way of system manipulation. I have emphasized on the Visible Navigation style in the system. For this task I have used the Standardize Task Sequences to ensure that embedded links are descriptive. Here also a use of the unique and descriptive headings and checkboxes for binary choices, I have also tried to use thumbnails to preview larger images. This also facilitate in the visible navigation. To incorporate the feedback feature I have designed the system in such a way that it offers informative feedback. This feature is implemented through designing and incorporating a dialogues feature to yield closure for the system users. This can be done by permitting easy reversal of actions and by offering the support internal focus of control. I have kept one point in mind during incorporating the feature of the error prevention that I have to reduce short-term memory load from the system user. This point is really supportive to the error prevention. The system help at any point during the use is very essential. For this purpose I have designed the tool tips and a help menu that is useful in case of any ambiguity during the system working. I suggest for the embedding of the information on the system interface. When curser goes to any point on the screen the system has to tell about that particular menu or function. System manual or documentation is really essential for the trouble shooting and error handling. So we have to provide this feature
Posted by Unknown at 10:02 PM